This work is a summary of the main of Yemen’s contribution to a regional Middle East and North Africa (MENA) project titled “Energy Efficiency Indicators”. The project covered ten countries and started January 2011. The final Report was published on October 2012 . The political unrest which erupted in many of the participating countries had led to delays in finalising the project.
The political unrest and lack of a National Data Bank has made the data collection phase very tedious. Nevertheless the data availability has reached more than 63 % which provides a sufficiently good basis to perform the study. Accordingly the indicators were calculated and the work was performed.
Since human activity is heavily dependent on energy usage and generation, energy indicators have long been used as a measure of a society’s development and sustainability. For example, in 1996 the United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development complied over 130 indicators . Such a large set can provide an accurate way to assess different aspects of sustainability and development [3–6].
This paper introduces Yemen’s energy profile and energy resources. The energy profile shows that the transportation sector is the largest consumer of energy. Next, energy resources are presented, oil is the main source but its production has declined. On the other hand, gas is a promising resource and renewable energy resources have a very high potential. Then the paper presents and analyses a number of energy indicators in Yemen. Both macro level indicators and those for different sectors are discussed in order to assess energy conservation and find out energy efficiency in various sectors. Some of the indicators used are defined and the method to calculate them is presented in Appendix. To assist in the analysis country-specific socio-economical characteristics are presented. The energy indicators covered the following: macro level indicators and indicators of energy transformation, industry, tertiary, residential, transport, agriculture and fishing sectors. For each sector 8–12 indicators are calculated.
In total 50 indicators were calculated covering a period of 7 years, 2003–2009. The civil unrest which started end of 2010 early 2011 has made it difficult to extend the analysis beyond 2009. The results of the calculations are discussed and analysed. The paper has shown that both energy efficiency and consumption are extremely low in Yemen. Finally, the paper shows also that energy dependency is reaching zero soon and within few years can be positive which shall make the country in a difficult economic situation due to heavy subsidies on energy sector and expected increase of energy consumption. Here one can see the value of this work as an initial step to help stakeholders of the sector to develop rational energy strategy for Yemen.
Energy demand was in 2009; 7423 thousand ton oil equivalent (ktoe) [7, 8]. This demand is met by local production and imported oil products of 4550 ktoe. However, Yemen exports crude oil and natural gas which reached 12,694 ktoe in 2009. Figure 1 shows the energy profile of the country. The grand total of energy production in 2009 reached 15,567 ktoe. The transport sector was accounted for 34 % of the consumption (most consumption), while minimum consumption was due to the tertiary sector. The profile structure can be explained by the fact that only 70 % of the country is covered by electricity, tourist industry is not strong due to the high security risk and biomass is not included in residential consumption.
The energy resources in Yemen consist of the following:
Yemen has specific factors affecting calculation results of energy indicators. These factors are listed below:
Appendix shows basic formulas for calculation of those indicators which require further clarification. In order to calculate the indicators, the necessary data had to be collected. During data collections a number of difficulties were faced some of which are listed below:
In order to comprehensively carry out the task many sources were used, mainly:
Macro-level indicators are concerned with the country’s energy status and its impact on the economy, social development and the environment. The importance of macro-level indicators of energy of a country comes from the fact they reflect its level of economic and social development. In addition, macro-level indicators expose other aspects such as environmental issues and energy efficiency. The formulas need to calculate these indicators are presented in Appendix Table 10. In this study the macro level indicators include:
From Table 1 and as shown in Fig. 2 one can see that first indicator energy dependence ratio (EDR) was −417 % in 2003, but in 2009 it climbed to −110 % which means that Yemen was independent in its energy resources until 2009. Furthermore, Yemen exports energy products (oil and gas). However, since the EDR indicator is increasing rapidly, one could conclude that Yemen could go into energy dependency phase within few years.
|EDR||Energy dependence ratio||%||−417 %||−438 %||−300 %||−286 %||−168 %||−135 %||−110 %|
|IPE||Intensity of primary energy||toe/106 YR||2.01||1.85||2.34||2.12||2.55||2.56||2.72|
|IFE||Intensity of final energy||toe/106 YR||1.54||1.43||1.81||1.66||1.98||2.01||2.13|
|RFEPE||Ratio of final energy consumption to primary energy||%||77 %||77 %||77 %||78 %||78 %||78 %||78 %|
|REB||Ratio of national energy bill to GDP||%||8 %||9 %||13 %||12 %||14 %||16 %||11 %|
|RPSE||Ratio of public subsidies for energy to GDP||%||0.07 %||0.21 %||0.73 %||1.1 %||1.5 %||3 %||3.6 %|
|AEF||Average emission factor||teCO2/toe||3.06||3.05||3.03||3.02||3.02||3.00||3.00|
|ICO2||Intensity of CO2||teCO2/106 YR||6.15||5.65||7.09||6.40||7.71||7.68||8.16|
|AECH||Average primary energy consumption per habitant||ktoe/103 hab||0.218||0.203||0.263||0.241||0.296||0.300||0.325|
|AELCH||Average electricity consumption per habitant||MWh/hab||0.143||0.149||0.162||0.173||0.190||0.203||0.203|
The second and third indicators are related to intensity of primary and final Energy (IPE &IFE1) which have small values not due high efficiency but because the energy consumption is comparatively low, the results are summarised in Fig. 3.
It is worth examining the fifth indicator, i.e. Ratio of National Energy Bill to GDP. The significant growth in this indicator is deemed a great challenge for Yemen. Thus it is essential for the State to reform its fuel subsidy policy.
Unitary energy and electricity consumption indicators show low levels compared to other countries which reflect the overall low level of economic development in Yemen. In addition, they indicate that high demand for energy should be expected in the future as development programs are implemented. The results are summarized in Fig. 4.
Energy transformation sector is related to all forms of energy conversion. In Yemen it includes all forms of electricity generation and oil refinery. Formulas to calculate these indicators are defined in Appendix Table 11.
Electricity sector suffers from serious problems, mainly: shortage of available generating capacities to meet demand, low efficiency as shown in Table 2, low coverage of supply, low reliability, bad quality of services and mismanagement. The Sector needs to be reformed and the investment plans must be implemented.
In Yemen there are two oil refineries. One was installed in Aden when it was British Colony, in the middle of last century. The monthly average crude oil refined in Aden Refinery is 2.161 MMbbls. The yearly production profile is shown in Table 3.
The other oil refinery is located in Mareb which was installed in the nineteen eighties. The monthly average of crude oil refined in Mareb Refinery is 250,000 bbls, i.e. around 10 % of the capacity of Aden refinery and having almost the same spectrum of oil products.
The Table 4 presents the main indicators calculated for transformation sector. The zero share of renewable energy electricity capacity indicator (SREC) shows that renewables are not utilized in spite of their high potentials (SREC) as discussed in section Energy resources.
|SREC||Share of installed renewable energy electricity capacity||%||0 %||0 %||0 %||0 %||0 %||0 %||0 %|
|URIC||Usage rate of the installed power generation capacity||%||47 %||45 %||49 %||54 %||59 %||61 %||50 %|
|AETS||Apparent efficiency of energy transformation sector||%||78 %||77 %||78 %||75 %||77 %||74 %||74 %|
|PGEFF||Power generation efficiency of thermal plants||%||30 %||31 %||32 %||32 %||33 %||33 %||33 %|
|SCFFP||Specific consumption of thermal power plants||toe/GWh||283.1||281.1||270.1||265.7||259.1||258.6||263.2|
|PGF||Power generation efficiency||%||30||31||32||32||33||33||33|
|SCPG||Specific consumption of power generation||toe/GWh||283.1||281.1||270.1||265.7||259.1||258.6||263.2|
|TDEE||Transmission and distribution electricity system efficiency||%||78 %||80 %||83 %||82 %||83 %||83 %||85 %|
|PGEF||Power generation emission factor||teCO2/GWh||821||815||783||770||751||750||763|
|ESEF||Electricity sector emission factor||teCO2/GWh||1169||1142||1006||999||965||950||951|
Usage rate of the installed power generation capacity (URIC) indicator reflects power station availability and utilization. It ranges between 47 and 61 %, which is significantly low. Noticeable sharp reduction of this indicator in 2009 is due to the fact that the Public Electricity Corporation (PEC) started in this year electricity purchase from private electricity producers.
Apparent efficiency of energy transformation sector (AETS) indicator, Fig. 5, generally expresses whole energy efficiency. It ranges between 78 and 74 %, which is quite low. This fact should encourage concerned entities to work out initiatives to improve the efficiency.
Generation Emission (PGEF) indicator shows slight improvement in the emission reduction factor. However this indicator is still high compared to similar countries in the region. Specific Fuel Consumption (SCFFP) indicator shows a reduction in fuel consumption up to 2008. In 2009 it slightly increased possibly due to power shortage increases which led to the running of the thermal plants with lower efficiency.
Indicators PGF and SCPG are replica of PGEFF & SCFFP indicators respectively, because power generation types in Yemen is limited to thermal power stations, see Fig. 6.
Industrial sector in Yemen is still at a low level of development, as the contribution of the industrial sector in the GDP for 2009 was around 24 %. This fact is clearly seen from the amount of energy consumed by the industry sector which reached 15.2 % (881 ktoe) of final energy consumption in 2009 year. Industries like steel and new cement plants were commissioned in 2011. But other heavy industries do not exist.
Final energy intensity for industry is given by final energy consumption of industry sector divided by added value at a constant price. One can see that the intensity almost doubled between 2003 and 2009. But this increase occurred due to less increase rate of value added of the sector. Specific consumption for cement seems to be within the average in similar countries. The results are summarised in Table 5.
|BSEC||Specific energy consumption for cement||toe/t||0.101||0.099||0.115||0.103||0.110||0.110||0.109|
|FEIIS||Final energy intensity of industry sector||toe/106 YR||5.335||5.086||6.548||6.233||7.977||8.358||9.120|
Due to unavailability of most of data for this sector, the indicators were not calculated except Energy Intensity which is defined as the final energy consumption of the tertiary sector divided by the tertiary sector added value at constant price, as shown in Table 6. Here we notice slight increase in energy intensity because value added increasing was less than energy consumption which indicates less efficiency.
|Energy intensity||Toe/106 YR||2.66||2.43||2.91||2.72||3.18||3.23||3.36|
The fact that around 40 % of the electricity output of distribution is consumed by household customers makes the residential sector of paramount importance. However, the number of dwellings using electricity supply represents less than 70 %. In order to meet the inhabitants’ demands for lighting, cooking, heating, cooling and other residential activities. This sector consumes other forms of energy, such as gas, kerosene, wood and biomass in addition to electricity. From Table 7 the following observations can be made:
|UCED||Unit consumption of energy per dwelling||kgoe/Dw||183.40||179.39||226.09||216.54||257.68||266.74||283.16|
|UEICD||Unit consumption of electricity per dwelling||kWh/Dw||398.78||415.80||447.32||486.02||532.88||561.83||562.52|
|RIPE||Intensity of residential sector||toe/Million LC||2.66||2.57||3.21||2.84||3.14||3.14||3.04|
|ERACR||Equipment rate of air conditioning in residential sector||Unit/Dw||0.111||0.111||0.113||0.112||0.114||0.123||0.120|
|ERFR||Equipment rate of refrigerator in residential sector||Unit/Dw||0.217||0.230||0.244||0.254||0.275||0.288||0.303|
It is worth noting that the transportation sector consumed around 34 % of final energy consumption for 2009. This fact shows the importance of initiating and developing energy saving policy in this sector.
Referring to overall intensity of final energies, transport energy intensity indicator reflects the high energy consumption level of this sector (34 %). The intensity increased from 0.684 toe/Million RY in 2003 to 0.629 toe/Million YR in 2009 (see Table 8). This is more likely due the increase in the fuel price in that period. Share of household expenditure for transport indicator shows significant increase from less 16 to 19 % which negatively impacts household living quality. Motorization Rate (MR) indicator shows that the increase rate of vehicles was higher than population increase rate (see Table 8). Coupled with the very high population growth rate such a rapid increase is not sustainable.
|TrFEI||Final energy intensity of transport sector||toe/Million YR||0.684||0.629||0.805||0.729||0.882||0.889||0.947|
|STEHE||Share of household expenditure for transport||%||16 %||17 %||19 %||19 %||18 %||19 %||18 %|
|EUCC||Average energy unit consumption of cars||kgeo/car/year||1518||1518||1518||1518||1518||1518||1518|
|EUCC G||Average energy unit consumption of gasoline cars||kgeo/car/year||1755||1755||1755||1755||1755||1755||1755|
|EUCC D||Average energy unit consumption of diesel Cars||kgeo/car/year||734||734||734||734||734||734||734|
|AEFTS||Average emission factor of transport sector||teCO2/toe||2.9||2.9||2.9||2.9||2.9||2.9||2.9|
|ICO2||CO2 intensity of transport sector||kgeCO2/YR||1.99||1.82||2.33||2.12||2.56||2.58||2.75|
Agriculture and fishing sector is the most important sector for national economy because more that 70 % of population live in rural areas where agriculture and fishing are the main activities. Furthermore, great efforts are paid to restrict population flow from rural areas to urban areas. This goal cannot be achieved unless there is sustainable development in rural areas. Hence the main aspect should be the agriculture development. Therefore energy indicators for agriculture and fishing sector have particular importance to rural development and to the national economy. The indicators are defined in Appendix Table 13.
From Table 9 the following observations can be made:
|Final energy intensity of agriculture||toe/106YR||6.97||6.76||8.85||8.12||9.73||9.79||1.07|
|Final energy intensity of fishing||toe/106YR||7.85||7.73||6.76||6.88||8.61||1.02||1.01|
|Specific consumption for fishing||toe/tone||0.066||0.067||0.0721||0.0783||0.118||0.166||0.113|
|Share of dry cultivated area||%||47 %||47 %||48 %||49 %||50 %||49 %||47 %|
|Share of irrigated cultivated area||%||53 %||53 %||52 %||51 %||50 %||51 %||53 %|
|Share of equipped wells with diesel pumps||%||93 %||93 %||93 %||93 %||93 %||93 %||93 %|
|Share of equipped wells with electric pumps||%||7 %||7 %||7 %||7 %||7 %||7 %||7 %|
This work presented a summary of the energy indicators for Yemen up to 2009. Further data could not be collected due to political unrest since 2011. For the first time such an exercise is performed in Yemen. This work can be considered a foundation upon which future reforms to the energy sector in Yemen can be built. This task can be considered one of most important due to expected impact of this study on the energy sector in particular and to the country development in general. Going through this exercise a number of observations may be pointed out:
The Author would like to express his deep gratitude to Plan-Blue of France for its financial and technical support. Special thanks for RCREEE, Alcor and all Yemeni concerned entities for their help and cooperation with the Author.
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|1||Energy dependence Ratio||%||Gross Energy Production in/Primary energy consumption|
|2||Intensity of Primary Energy||Toe/YR||Primary energy consumption/GDP at constant price|
|3||Intensity of Final Energy||Toe/YR||Final energy consumption/GDP at constant price|
|4||Average emission factor||Te/Toe||Energy sector CO2 emissions/Primary energy consumption|
|5||Intensity of CO2||Te/YR||Energy sector CO2 emissions/GDP at constant price|
|1||Usage rate of the installed power generation capacity||%||Total generated electricity/Total installed generation capacity|
|2||Apparent Efficiency of Energy Transformation Sector||%||Transformation Sector Energy Output Transformation Sector Energy Input|
|3||Transmission and Distribution Electricity system Efficiency||%||Total Electricity Output of the Transmission and Distribution System/Total Electricity Input to the Transmission and Distribution System|
|4||Power Generation Emission Factor||Te/GW||Electricity sector emissions/Total generated electricity|
|5||Electricity Sector Emission Factor||Te/GW||Electricity sector emissions/Total Electricity Output of the Transmission and Distribution System|
|1||Final Energy Intensity of transport sector||Toe/YR||Final Energy Consumption of Transport Sector/GDP at constant price|
|2||CO2 intensity of transport sector||teCO2/YR||Transport sector emissions/GDP at constant price|
|1||Final Energy Intensity of agriculture||Toe/YR||Final Energy Consumption of Agriculture sector/Added Value of agriculture sector at constant price|
|2||Final Energy Intensity of fishing||Toe /YR||Final Energy Consumption of fishing sector/Added Value of fishing at constant price|